The GBA gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase, or GCase, found within cells. Mutations in the GBA gene are associated with some cases of Parkinson's. Read more.
  • GCase – glucocerebrosidase

    A protein which helps break down fats and other proteins. The GBA gene directs the production of the GCase protein and GBA mutations significantly decrease GCase activity in the Parkinsonian brain.
  • GDNF

    Glial Cell-line derived nerve growth factor.
  • gene therapy

    The insertion of genes into an individual's cells and tissues to treat hereditary diseases where deleterious mutant alleles can be replaced with functional ones. The genes are usually put inside a non-pathogenic virus, which serves as the mechanism to penetrate the cells. Gene therapy can also be used to correct non-genetic deficiencies such as the loss of dopamine in Parkinson's, to modify the function of a group of cells or to provide a source of growth factors.
  • genotype

    The collection of genetic material of an individual that gives rise to its characteristics
  • glial cells

    Non-neural cells, commonly called neuroglia or simply glia (Greek for "glue"), that maintain and provide support and protection for the brain's cells (or neurons). Astrocytes are one kind of glial cells.
  • GLP-1

    This diabetes medication works by increasing the levels of hormones called ‘incretins’. These hormones help the body produce more insulin only when needed and reduce the amount of glucose being produced by the liver when it’s not needed.
  • growth factors

    Naturally occurring substances (usually proteins) that help maintain the health of cells and encourage cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Some growth factors are being looked at to try to promote the survival of the neural cells that are degenerating in Parkinson's.
  • gut microbiome

    The complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals.

With thanks to World Parkinson’s Coalition.