• c-Abl

    A gene implicated in the processes of cell differentiation, cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response.
  • calcium

    An essential mineral. Calcium is important for neurological "signalling" and is involved in many chemical reactions within nerve cells (or neurons) and in mitochondria function. Calcium overload in the substantia nigra has been postulated as one mechanism that could contribute to the death of these neurons.
  • cell replacement

    Cell replacement therapy  involves the restoring of lost function caused by damage or disease in the central nervous system by the replacement of dead cells with new healthy ones. Read more.
  • cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

    A watery fluid generated within the brain's ventricles. CSF circulates to bathe the brain and spinal cord to cushion these from physical impact. Small amounts can be harvested by lumbar puncture to measure chemicals coming from the brain.

With thanks to World Parkinson’s Coalition.